The performance of rats on this schedule was analysed using a quantitative model of schedule controlled behaviour, Killeen’s (1994) ‘Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement’ (MPR) model. An advantage of this approach is that MPR provides a theoretical basis for discriminating between the effects of interventions on ‘motivational’ and ‘motor’ aspects of operant behaviour. According to MPR, schedule controlled behaviour may be characterized by an ‘activation’ parameter, a, which measures the reinforcer efficacy or value, a ‘response time’ parameter, , which measures the minimum inter response time, and a ‘coupling’ parameter’ which expresses the weight in short term memory assigned to the most recent response.Chapter 1 reviews the background literature related to the main themes of the project: the neurobiology and behavioural functions of the orexinergic and the dopaminergic systems of the brain, and the use of the progressive ratio schedule in behavioural neuroscience.
After all, a president cannot pardon someone charged with state crimes. But the overlap turned out to work against Vance. In December 2019, New York state Supreme Court Justice Maxwell Wiley threw out the state charges, saying that “the law of double jeopardy in New York State provides a very narrow window for prosecution.” Vance took the case to the New York Court of Appeals the state highest court but it said last week that it had declined to review the case.
The American Psychological Association in 1973 declassified homosexuality as a mental illness or even as an aberration. It was a natural human condition, the product of genetics and the natural variation of organisms. Once their own sons and daughters, their relatives and friends revealed their peculiar sexual distinctions, people tended to no longer view it as abhorrent, although many parents still cast their children out.
The new administration is using the Defence Production Act to get companies to boost production of vaccine and protective equipment. Liz Cheney (R Wyo.) had a good week in Washington she remained in her House leadership position this week after an overwhelming vote of support from her GOP colleagues in the lower chamber while standing by her vote to impeach former President Donald Trump but on Saturday, the Wyoming State Republican Party voted to formally censure her, CNN reports. In the motion, the state GOP called on its lone representative in the House to resign “immediately” over her opposition to Trump, and the party also said it intends to “withhold any future political funding” from Cheney and requested she repay donations to her 2020 campaign from the state GOP and any county Republican Parties.